Tag Archives: Ruskin

Sir Hubert von Herkomer R.A.

10 Feb

Nestling amongst my talks on Antarctic heroes and Antarctic subjects is one on a Victorian artist, Hubert Herkomer, a man who was one of the most famous artists of the late Victorian era and the Edwardian period. Why is he there? I am not an art historian. I spent my working life as a Consultant in the National Health Service.

caption: self-portrait by Hubert Herkomer held in Bushey Museum Hertfordshire U.K.

The reason that Herkomer entered my life is that I wrote the biography of Edward Wilson, the doctor who died with Scott in 1912. Wilson and his wife made their home in Bushey, Hertfordshire. When I visited Bushey Museum to learn more about my subject, I found they were more interested in their celebrity Herkomer, who had lived in the town for forty years.

Caption: Lululaund Gothic style(built from 1880-1884). Designed by the American architect H.H.Richardson(Boston Mass.USA).

I learnt that during these years, in addition to the most prodigious artistic output he was a talented musician, ran an art school, wrote the music, the words and acted in plays and, with his father and uncles, built a huge Gothic house, designed by H.H. Richardson, the famous Bostonian American architect.

Caption:Students of Herkomer Art School started in 1883. Initially for 60 students, but soon rose to 100 students.

When I looked around the museum I was caught immediately by the numerous examples of his paintings and drawings on display. I decided I would make a presentation, which, I hoped might be of general interest

Caption: Drawn by Herkomer Woodcut printed in the Graphic Magazine 1870. Bushey Museum hertfordshire U.K.

Herkomer was an inexhaustible worker. Initially he produced many ‘Social Realism’ Illustrations. These graphically informed all Victoria’s subjects of the poverty and deprivation of the Victorian working class.



He continued with these for many years; his Diploma painting (presented to the Royal Academy when he was elected a Full Member) was ‘On Strike’, described as ‘a cry for humanity’.



He also produced numerous paintings and pictures, of scenes in England, Wales and Germany. Later in his career he concentrated on the ‘portrait market’ with great success, painting the great and the good in this country and in Germany.

Caption: watercolour painting of JOHN RUSKIN, H.Herkomer 1879. NATIONAL PORTRAIT GALLERY LONDON, U.K.

Caption: MARRIED ANNA WEISE 1873.Her portrait by Hubert Herkomer 1876. BUSHEY MUSEUM, HERTFORDSHIRE U.K.

In 1899 he was awarded the Order of Maximilien by Prince Luitpold of Bavaria; this allowed him to add von to his name, an honour he greatly appreciated as it raised the prestige of the Herkomer family as a whole.

He visited the States twice and on one of his visits to Boston he painted 36 portraits in a few months.

Caption: Herkomer built a THEATRE,created ELABORATE MUSICAL PLAYS,and WROTE AND ORCHESTRATED THE MUSIC, as well taking an active role in the plays. The image is of Edward Gordon Craige, who was the stage designer producing amazingly a mobile full moon, fully lit, that traversed from one side of the stage to the other steadily through out the performance. He was the son of Ellen Terry.

Hubert Herkomer’s original passport to success however was ‘The Last Muster’. This was painted when he was twenty-six. It depicts Chelsea Pensioners in the chapel of the Chelsea Hospital and drew spontaneous applause from the Hanging Committee, of the Royal Academy, when it was submitted for exhibition – surely unusual. It was one of the most popular paintings in England for 40 years and won the Medal of Honour in the Paris Universal Exhibition of 1878. It is said to be a memento mori and a reminder both of patriotism and poverty.


His watercolour portrait of Ruskin, described as one of the greatest portraits of the Victorian era, was painted when Ruskin was probably already suffering from a bipolar disorder. The portrait is considered outstandingly insightful; it certainly drew enthusiastic praise from Ruskin himself who nominated Herkomer for the Slade Professorship in Oxford.

Caption:Watercolour by Hubert Herkomer 1901 of Queen Victoria at Osborne House Isle of Wight.U.K.
The Royal Collection.
This image is from a copy held by Bushey Museum, Hertfordshire. U.K.

Edward VII invited him to paint Queen Victoria on her deathbed and subsequently granted him a knighthood.
But Hubert is now largely forgotten. Why? There are four main reasons. Firstly, although he was a naturalized British citizen, he was born in Bavaria and never lost his connection with Germany, visiting Bavaria regularly. Secondly, he was often perceived to be egotistical, self-praising and effusive, not traits likely to endear him to his fellow citizens and artistic rivals (Royal Academicians filed a question concerning his right to British citizenship). Thirdly, by the time he died in 1914, anti German feeling was rife.

But probably the most important reason was that by the end of World War 1 tastes in art had changed. There was no appetite for ‘vulgar, coloured photographs’. ‘Modernism’ had arrived

Although Herkomer was and is represented in galleries throughout Britain and word-wide, he sank into obscurity for some years. He has been reassessed for his significant contributions more recently.

I am making two presentations on him this year. I hope to kindle further interest in an undoubtedly brilliant artist.

von Herkomer

13 Mar

vonHerkomerThe more you learn about a subject the more interesting it becomes and so it seems with von Herkomer.

I was surprised that he was suggested to follow Ruskin as Slade Professor at Oxford by no less a person than Ruskin himself. Herkomer was a young man when, in 1878, he met the 59 year old, frail Ruskin. Ruskin was apparently charmed by Herkomer’s exuberance (and his zither playing!). Herkomer, in his turn was impressed by Ruskin’s wide reaching conversation and his (unexpected to me), charm of manner. (Herkomer was eventually appointed as Slade Professor in 1885.)

In 1879 Ruskin sat for a portrait by Herkomer, The interest in this is firstly, it is an excellent portrait and secondly, the way Herkomer approached his subject was so different to Ruskin, that it is remarkable that Ruskin tolerated the experience (and supported the Slade Professor plan.) Whereas Ruskin made minutely observed outlines and details and then added colour, Herkomer covered the paper rapidly with a wash in grey or ochre then sketched his subject in charcoal, working over this with a long-haired brush. Ruskin found Herkomer’s ability to produce a likeness from such a hastily drawn sketch, amazing.

Ruskin thought photographs did not flatter him, but he liked the portrait. He wrote that it was full of character though ‘not like him in the ordinary sense’ and ‘the first that has ever given what good may be gleaned out of the clods of my face’


8 Jun

When he was a young man Wilson was an admirer of Ruskin. This meant that anything he drew of painted had to be absolutely accurate – nothing added, nothing taken away. His (often beautiful), drawings were absolutely precise. As he became older he started to follow Turner. This is not so odd as it appears; Ruskin wrote a defence of Turner in ‘Modern Painters’. Ruskin seems to have loved Turner because of what he (Ruskin) saw as Turner’s truthfulness to nature and Turner’s revolutionary distain for the conventional way in which most of Turner’s (and Ruskin’s) contemporaries painted landscapes. Turner combined imagination with his observations. He was innovative and came closer to nature than any other artist had done since Claude (who Turner greatly admired). Turner showed a new understanding and knowledge of nature and of her structure, but he also depicted her spirituality and Ruskin was the critic who understood this.

Edward Wilson chose two artistic giants to model his work on